Final exam scores are up! And one question got thrown out.

For those of you who took the final today, I just graded them by hand (instead of sending them in, which takes a day) – so the scores are now up!

A majority of the class got this question wrong:

Which type of necrosis would you see in an infection in the liver?

The answer was liquefactive necrosis – but many of you put fat necrosis (potentially because you were thinking about pancreatitis, and maybe you thought that the same would hold true for infections of the liver) or coagulative necrosis (maybe because you were thinking about how infarcts cause coagulative necrosis, and maybe you assumed that an infection would do the same thing).

But if an infection is bad enough to cause necrosis, the type of necrosis it will almost always cause is liquefactive necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis also occurs in brain infarctions, for some reason (infarctions everywhere else cause coagulative necrosis).

So I added a point to everyone’s score for this question. Which means that if you got all the questions right on this exam, you wound up with a score of 49 out of 48 points!

Let me know if you have any additional questions. I’m happy to meet with you and go through the test to see which questions you got wrong – just drop me a quick email.

Have a wonderful, relaxing, peaceful, fun summer!

Final Exam scores are up!

The scores for people who took the final yesterday are back, and I posted them on Canvas just now. One of the questions performed poorly…so I gave everyone an extra point for that question (which means if you got it right, you got an additional bonus point). I’ll let you know which question it was after the rest of the class finishes the exam next week. If you want to stop by and see your exam, just drop me an email so I can be sure to be around when you stop by.

Good luck on the rest of your finals…and have a GREAT break – you deserve it! Lots of rest and fun things ūüôā

Final exam Kahoot and new crossword

I put together our final exam Kahoot Рyou can find it on our Kahoots page (along with a few notes about how to use it).  I also added a new crossword on neoplasia Рyou can find it (along with another one on previous lecture topics) on our Crosswords page.

I’ll be posting quiz 4 scores tonight – and then I think that’s about it as far as stuff you need to know! Except for our lecture on Monday, of course.

Check your email for info about the final exam options – and let me know if you have any questions as you’re studying!

Inflammation Lecture Summary

Some of you have had questions about how much detail you should go into as you study the Inflammation lecture – so I made a summary of the main concepts from the inflammation lecture similar to the cell injury summary. The exam questions will come from the material in this summary – so if you understand this stuff, you should be good for the exam.

Also, check out this amazing electron micrograph of a neutrophil squeezing out of a blood vessel. It’s just incredible how such a big cell can squeeze through such a tiny gap!

Quiz scores posted, finally!

The scores for all three quizzes are now up on Canvas! There was an issue with Canvas’s file upload process – but I figured it out and re-uploaded the scores, and after checking and double-checking, I believe the scores are now correct. Whew.

Just a note on quiz 2: I made an adjustment for question 8 (the one about the characteristics of chronic inflammation). There were quite a few people that got thrown off by the “It appears about 48 hours after injury” distractor – so if you answered that question incorrectly, I added a point back to your score.

I went through and emailed everyone who had a missing score, or a score that seemed weird – but please do take a look and make sure your scores look right to you.

Only one quiz left!

Cell injury summary


Studying cell injury can be a bear! You can easily go down rabbit holes and get lost in details. To help you avoid wasting time, I thought I’d share a few short summaries of cell injury with you. Feel free to use these, or not, as you see fit – they are totally optional.

The picture above, by the way, shows dead heart tissue following a myocardial infarction (heart attack). In myocardial infarction, loss of blood flow to the heart results in a particular type of necrosis called coagulative necrosis, as Dr. Dolan mentioned in her lecture yesterday. Here’s the same slide with labels:

To help you as you study the cell injury lectures, I put together a summary of the most important points from the lectures. Our exam questions will come directly from this summary – so if you understand the concepts in the summary, you should do well on the exam.

If you want a little more in-depth stuff to read, here are a couple posts from my Pathology Student website: 

Some stuff about autoimmune diseases


Today we’ll be talking about four autoimmune diseases: lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and scleroderma. I thought I’d share a couple quick posts I wrote about CREST syndrome¬†and¬†lupus¬†in case you might find them helpful.

You might also want to check out a New York Times series called “Patient Voices”¬†in which several patients with a particular disease talk about how that disease has affected their lives. Here is a Patient Voice article on scleroderma. It’s a bunch of short stories (a couple minutes each), narrated by the patients themselves, accompanied by a series of photos of the patient. I highly recommend you listen to some of these. I identified with “The Mom with Frozen Fingers;” you may wish to start with “Losing his color” which is narrated by a 26 year old man. I think you’ll probably find yourself listening to more than one.

There are Patient Voices segments on lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren syndrome too.

Selena Gomez and others talk about lupus

Selena Gomez has been battling lupus for several years. She’s been open about her diagnosis (check out this ABC article¬†in which Selena and other patients talk about what it is really like to have lupus).

A couple years ago, she underwent a kidney transplant for complications related to her disease. Her disease course is more severe than it is for many patients with the disease; kidney transplants are typically used only after other, less dangerous treatments fail.

Why so sad, Prometheus?

Yeah, an eagle is pecking a little at his liver – but seriously, his face shows a disproportionate degree of anguish.

Prometheus is in a bind (literally: the painting is “Prometheus bound” by Rubens) because Zeus is pissed that he stole the secret of fire. As punishment, Zeus sends an eagle to eat Prometheus’ liver. But the liver has an incredible capacity for regeneration – so overnight, Prometheus’ liver grows back. So Zeus sends the eagle again, and the liver regenerates again…you get the idea.

While it’s probably pretty uncomfortable to have an eagle pecking at your liver, the reason Prometheus is so incredibly upset is probably because to the ancient Greeks, the liver was considered to be the seat of one’s soul and intelligence. Had the eagle been pecking at Prometheus’ spleen, say, or his kidneys, maybe it wouldn’t be such an insult. Of course, these organs can’t regenerate as prodigiously as the liver can – so although Prometheus would be less offended, he’d also be dead.